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Size Chart

Women
  • INT XXS XS S M L XL
    Chest
    (cm)
    74
    to
    77
    78
    to
    81
    82
    to
    85
    86
    to
    89
    90
    to
    93
    94
    to
    97
    Waist
    (cm)
    59
    to
    62
    63
    to
    66
    67
    to
    70
    71
    to
    74
    75
    to
    78
    79
    to
    82
    Hip
    (cm)
    83
    to
    86
    87
    to
    90
    91
    to
    94
    95
    to
    98
    99
    to
    102
    103
    to
    107
  • INT XXS XS S M L XL
    GER 32 34 36 38 40 42
    US 0-2 4 6 8 10 12
    UK 6 8 10 12 14 16
    ITA 38 40 42 44 46 48
    FRA 34 36 38 40 42 44
    JAP 5 7 9 11 13 15
Men
  • INT XS S M L XL XXL
    Chest
    (cm)
    86
    to
    89
    90
    to
    93
    94
    to
    97
    98
    to
    101
    102
    to
    105
    106
    to
    109
    Waist
    (cm)
    73
    to
    76
    77
    to
    80
    81
    to
    84
    85
    to
    88
    89
    to
    92
    93
    to
    96
    Hip
    (cm)
    87
    to
    90
    91
    to
    94
    95
    to
    98
    99
    to
    102
    103
    to
    106
    107
    to
    109
  • INT XS S M L XL XXL
    GER 44 46 48 50 52 54
    US 34 36 38 40 42 44
    UK 34 36 38 40 42 44
    ITA 44 46 48 50 52 54
    FRA 38 40 42 44 46 48
    JAP 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • CM 72 77 82 87 92
    INCH 28 30 32 34 36

    (Approximate values)

The blue page:
Denim news

Linen & Hemp

Text by Laura Reinke

We’re always hunting for even more eco-friendly materials and techniques for our sustainable denim line A BETTER BLUE – to save even more water, electricity, chemicals and emissions. In our summer 2022 denim collection, we found two great partners that are helping us to reach this goal: linen and hemp. Linen is not only the definition of the perfect summer material thanks to its lightness, casual look and cooling properties, it also has many sustainable advantages. The same is true for hemp, another eco-friendly multi-talent. By the way, both materials are cultivated in Europe!

We asked Uwe Kippschnieder, our denim developer and sustainability expert, a few questions about linen and hemp.

Interview with denim expert Uwe Kippschnieder

Uwe Kippschnieder is Closed’s Denim Developer. He knows everything about denim – that’s why we call him our “walking denim lexicon” or simply refer to him as Dr. Denim. Uwe joined our company in 2002 and his passion for denim has been growing ever since. He is fascinated by sustainable denim innovations and is always pushing them vigorously for Closed. Inspired by his regular visits to weaving mills and laundries in Italy, he developed our eco-friendly denim line A BETTER BLUE with the clear message: style and eco-awareness can go hand in hand.

Let’s start with linen – what makes this material sustainable?

Linen made from flax plant fibres and the flax plant is very low maintenance: it can grow in poor soil and needs no artificial irrigation (rain is sufficient) and almost no artificial fertilisers or pesticides. Denim is usually made of cotton which requires a lot of water, chemicals and energy. That’s why we always try to find alternatives to conventional cotton when developing new types of denim. Organic cotton is the obvious choice, as 80 per cent water and about 60 per cent less energy are required compared to conventional cotton, and no toxic chemicals, pesticides or insecticides are used for the cultivation. But compared to organic cotton, the cultivation of the flax plant saves far more resources. Most of the global flax production is in Europe – for example, in France or Belgium. This results in relatively short transport routes to our fabric producers in Italy.
Linen has a lot of other benefits: as a natural fabric, it is completely biodegradable (when dyed naturally). It’s heat-regulating, anti-bacterial, very durable, long-lasting and gets softer and more beautiful with time. For all those reasons, we have used linen not only for jeans this summer but in almost every product group – from 100 per cent linen qualities to linen-mix fabrics.

Hemp is next. What are the eco-friendly properties of this material?

Hemp usually grows without pesticides and needs around 80 per cent less water than cotton. Hemp grows fast and its cultivation, which also often takes place in the EU, requires a small amount of land – it can produce up to double the fibre yield per hectare than cotton. Just like linen, hemp fabric is very robust, temperature-regulating and biodegradable. By the way, both hemp and linen have long histories of being used as fibres – and now they’re making a big comeback.

Denim with linen or hemp has a special look. How would you describe it and what do you like about it?

We use 15 per cent linen or between 29 and 33 per cent per cent hemp for our denim, mixed with organic cotton. The texture of linen and hemp yarn is not completely even – little irregularities and slubs appear in the woven denim. This vivid structure gives our denim with linen or hemp a very casual touch. Plus: the denim feels very smooth and nice. And of course, the cooling properties of hemp and linen are especially good in summer!

„Most of the global flax production is in Europe –for example, in France or Belgium. This results in relatively short transport routes to our fabric producers in Italy.

Denim Lexicon

A little bit of denim knowledge to impress others with. This time: construction

The construction of a fabric refers to the way in which warp and weft threads are interwoven. By far the most common denim weave is the twill where the typically indigo-coloured warp is spun across several, normally three, neutral-coloured weft threads (3/1 binding). This weave creates a clearly visible diagonal pattern with a mostly blue surface.

Eco-friendly
dyeing methods

Text by Laura Reinke

Since we started our eco-denim line A BETTER BLUE in 2018, we’re constantly on the lookout for innovative sustainable materials and techniques – to save even more water, electricity, chemicals and emissions when making our jeans. That’s why we were really excited when learning about a new low-impact way to dye our denim (and other fabrics!) with natural dyes – almost every colour is possible! We asked our very own denim developer and sustainability expert Uwe Kippschnieder a few questions about this process – and he also explains other eco-friendly dyeing methods in use for A BETTER BLUE.

Interview with denim expert Uwe Kippschnieder

Uwe Kippschnieder is Closed’s Denim Developer. He knows everything about denim – that’s why we call him our “walking denim lexicon” or simply refer to him as Dr. Denim. Uwe joined our company in 2002 and his passion for denim has been growing ever since. He is fascinated by sustainable denim innovations and is always pushing them vigorously for Closed. Inspired by his regular visits to weaving mills and laundries in Italy, he developed our eco-friendly denim line A BETTER BLUE with the clear message: style and eco-awareness can go hand in hand.

What are the sustainable advantages of using natural dyes?

Natural dyes use natural pigments instead of chemicals. They are more sustainable than conventional dyes from start to finish. No harmful chemicals are involved in the creation of the dye. In the dyeing process of the garments later on, less energy and less water are required. The wastewater does not contain any chemicals, which makes water treatment much easier, again saving energy. The dyeing process alone needs 30 per cent less water, 70 per cent less energy and 40 per cent chemicals in comparison to conventional dyeing. By using natural dyes, we can lower the environmental impact of our garments tremendously – for example, for a pair of jeans we achieved an EIM score of 8 instead of 14 after switching to natural dyes. Some information on the EIM score while we are at it: the Environmental Impact Measurement system by Jeanologia, a Spanish company for sustainable textile solutions, monitors the impact of garment finishing processes to improve their environmental performance, taking into consideration water and energy consumption, chemical impact and workers’ health. The lower the score (between 0 and 100), the better and more eco-friendly. Every pair of our A BETTER BLUE jeans has an EIM score below 33, which means “low-impact”. Having these kinds of objective, comparable numbers is important to us as they help us to further improve and track our progress.

Where are the natural dyes obtained?

Natural dyes are either mineral-based or plant-based. Mineral-based pigments are obtained in quarries, in our case in Italy, Cyprus or Morocco. As the pigments are very intense, only a very small amount is needed – so the environment is not harmed during this process. Plant-based dyes are obtained from bark, vegetables or dye plants such as curcuma. Many plant-based dyes even upcycle food waste, for example orange peel or nutshells, which is great as there is a steady supply without needing new resources. And there is even another advantage for some botanical dyes: the pulp, which remains after the dyeing process, can be reused as fertiliser. So far, we use the mineral dyes for denim – their colourfastness and resistance to fading are great. The botanical dyes are not used for denim, but mainly for jersey and nylon. We will soon introduce natural dyes for even more product groups.

Can every possible colour be achieved with natural dyes?

Although a very wide range of shades and intensities is possible with natural dyes – from pale yellow to orange, greens and blues – not every colour can be achieved. You can never get a very deep black, for example. Every dye producer has a colour chart to show the different options. The colours are a bit different from conventional colours, not as bright but rather powdery – which we like a lot. Naturally dyed denim can also react a bit differently when washed.

Which other eco-friendly dyeing treatments are used for Closed jeans?

Our Italian partner Candiani uses many different sustainable techniques to dye the denim for our jeans. One of them is prereduced indigo. Unlike conventional indigo, it does not require treatment with chemicals – it is already water-soluble and can be used directly for dyeing. 50 per cent less chemicals are needed and prereduced indigo meets the strict requirements of the Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 for textiles tested for harmful substances. It has the GOTS seal and complies with the new EU chemicals regulation REACH. Another example is the patented Kitotex® technology which upcycles waste products from the food industry for sizing the denim: mushrooms or the shells of shrimps. Sizing is the process of preparing the yarn for the dye, making it smooth, uniform and resistant. With the Kitotex® technology, the dyeing process needs 70 per cent less water, 50 per cent less chemicals and 30 per cent less energy than conventional methods. Thanks to the natural components, it is completely biodegradable and microplastic-free. The so-called easy-to-fade process is another dyeing innovation: the colour pigments do not penetrate as deeply into the yarn as in conventional processes, requiring 15 per cent less water and 15 per cent less energy in the denim manufacturing process. Since the dye is more likely to sit on the surface, it is easier to wash out again with industrial washing methods – saving even more water in the washing process that follows.

„Natural dyes are either mineral-based or plant-based.“

Denim Lexicon

A little bit of denim knowledge to impress others with. This time: Dip

“Dip” describes the immersion baths cotton yarns repeatedly undergo during the dyeing process. Yarns must be exposed to air after each dip, because the true indigo colour only appears when it interacts with oxygen – it’s green before that. The more frequently these dips are repeated, the darker and more intense the colour. But: the fewer dips, the more eco-friendly. To lower the number of dips, we use the sustainable nitrogen dyeing process. How it works: the yarn passes through a chamber filled with nitrogen. Here, the nitrogen reacts with the colour pigment and intensifies the dyeing process. This technique reduces the number of colour baths the yarn has to pass through from seven to two, saving 30 per cent of the chemicals.

Organic Cotton

Text by Laura Reinke

The most important ingredient of (almost) every denim: cotton! We have been switching to organic cotton for the majority of our jeans within the last years, as it’s much more eco-friendly. By now, around two-thirds of our jeans for men and women are made with organic cotton. We asked our very own denim (and cotton!) expert Uwe Kippschnieder a couple of questions about the material.

Interview with denim expert Uwe Kippschnieder

Uwe Kippschnieder is Closed’s Denim Developer. He knows everything about denim – that’s why we call him our “walking denim lexicon” or simply refer to him as Dr. Denim. Uwe joined our company in 2002 and his passion for denim has been growing ever since. He is fascinated by sustainable denim innovations and is always pushing them vigorously for Closed. Inspired by his regular visits to weaving mills and laundries in Italy, he developed our eco-friendly denim line A BETTER BLUE with the clear message: style and eco-awareness can go hand in hand.

How is organic cotton produced in comparison to conventional cotton?

Organic cotton is produced and certified according to the guidelines and standards of organic farming – which means: neither genetically modified seeds nor toxic chemicals, pesticides and insecticides are used. Avoiding these chemicals protects our groundwater and biodiversity. In addition, mixed crops and crop rotation ensure the build-up of soil organic matter and prevent soil erosion. Compared to conventional cotton, the cultivation of organic cotton also requires about 80 per cent less water and about 60 per cent less energy. For all those reasons, organic cotton is a lot more sustainable. By using it for our jeans, including but not limited to our eco-denim line A BETTER BLUE, we gradually reduce our share of conventional cotton in order to protect the environment. Closed also uses organic cotton for a lot of other essentials – from shirts to hoodies.

Does denim made of organic cotton look or feel different?

No, it looks and feels the same as denim made with conventional cotton. It’s always our aim to make our A BETTER BLUE jeans as high-quality, on-trend and comfortable as the classic Closed denim.

Why isn’t every pair of Closed jeans made of organic cotton?

Well, not yet! But we’re getting closer. Unfortunately, due to the rising global demand and limited offers for organic cotton, it’s not always easy for our suppliers to get their hands on sufficient amounts. That’s why we’re gradually increasing the organic cotton in our collections. And by the way: we also use recycled cotton for our denim – another sustainable option.

Tell us more!

In every weaving mill, cotton residues accumulate during the production of fabrics. In the past, these were not used. These remnants are now mechanically processed and added to fresh cotton. The less virgin, conventional cotton we use, the more we can cut back on the water, energy and chemicals that would otherwise be needed to grow cotton.

„The less virgin, conventional cotton we use, the more we can cut back on the water, energy and chemicals that would otherwise be needed to grow cotton.“

Denim Lexicon

A little bit of denim knowledge to impress others with. This time: Selvedge Denim

The term “selvedge” or “selvage” orig-inated in the sixteenth century and describes a fabric with a woven edge (= self edge). The self edge prevents a fabric from fraying and makes it possible to process it without further sewing. In the denim industry, the term selvedge has become synonymous with top-quality textiles. The most noticeable attribute of jeans made with selvedge denim is a woven edge located on the outer seam of the trouser leg, which indicates that this particular denim was woven on a narrower loom comparable to those in use at the turn of the century. This special weaving method makes the fabric more durable and authentic-looking. Today, ninety per cent of all selvedge denim is produced by the industry leaders Japan, Italy, and the USA. Besides distinctive weaving techniques, what makes selvedge denim exclusive is its producers’ (usually small mills) pride in their craft and passion for the product.

Eco-Washing Methods

Text by Laura Reinke

Our denim wouldn’t have its signature blue hues – from spring sky to dark navy – without elaborate wash treatments. Our denim laundries in Italy, Everest and Green Lab, focus on state-of-the-art sustainable techniques to save water, chemicals and energy – while creating every conceivable shade of blue. We talked to our denim expert Uwe Kippschnieder about the latest eco-friendly wash innovations.

Interview with denim expert Uwe Kippschnieder

Uwe Kippschnieder is Closed’s Denim Developer. He knows everything about denim – that’s why we call him our “walking denim lexicon” or simply refer to him as Dr. Denim. Uwe joined our company in 2002 and his passion for denim has been growing ever since. He is fascinated by sustainable denim innovations and is always pushing them vigorously for Closed. Inspired by his regular visits to weaving mills and laundries in Italy, he developed our eco-friendly denim line A BETTER BLUE with the clear message: style and eco-awareness can go hand in hand.

What new denim washes are you currently working on?

When it comes to denim washes, we are always working to reduce our environmental impact, i.e. using less water, chemicals and energy. For the upcoming seasons, we have set ourselves the goal of banning pumice stones (used for conventional stone-washing processes), PP spray (potassium permanganate) and other conventional bleaching agents from all our denim washes in order to save water, chemicals and electricity. We are working very closely with our Italian laundries Everest and Green Lab to achieve this goal – and are always excited to learn about their eco-friendly wash innovations.

Which new sustainable techniques are the laundries using as alternatives for conventional wash treatments?

Everest, our long-term partner from Piombino Dese, uses new “faux stones” instead of pumice for stone-washing. They had already been using eco stones, but the new generation is even more efficient and long-lasting. Pumice stone is very porous due to its open structure, it rubs off quickly during washing and loses substance. This results in sediments in the waste water – blue sludge which has to be disposed of as hazardous waste. This is completely avoided by using faux stones, which last up to 200 times longer. Another advantage: pumice is a finite resource, and most of the pumice used for the stone-washing process is mined in open pit mines. We can reduce this interference in nature by using the faux stones.

What else is new in the laundries?

Everest is also testing a new enzyme to achieve a medium light denim tone. The enzymes react with the colour pigments and lighten the denim fabric, much like the traditional stone-washing process. It’s quite fascinating: they put this enzyme powder in the washing machine along with the wet garments – and after 20 to 30 minutes, they come out a very nice mid-blue. There’s no need for stones, extra water or high temperatures. Another promising new technique: our laundry Green Lab from Grottammare has developed and patented a new method of applying chemicals during the wash process together with the chemical supplier Garmon. They now use a foam (called SmartFoam), which cuts down the impact by astonishing amounts: around 90 per cent fewer chemicals, 80 per cent less water and 40 per cent less energy. By the way, Green Lab (formerly known as Itac Lab) is the laundry with the biggest laser park – and they were the first laundry in Italy to start treating garments with lasers. It was not common back then, that’s why the first laser they used was a modified one from the automobile industry. Now they have the most precise high-definition lasers and are able to create various wash effects – even marble effects.

Can you explain how “washing” with lasers works? Why is this method eco-friendly?

Using lasers means “washing” with heat instead of chemicals: the targeted heat of the laser partially burns or breaks up the colour pigments so that the indigo can bleed in these areas during the subsequent wash. With modern, high-definition lasers that work with millimetre precision, it is possible to add practically any kind of pattern and fading to a pair of jeans. Fading and patterns are usually the lighter areas and they make the jeans look worn and lived-in. It’s even possible to create used-look effects such as small holes or other signs of wear. Unlike conventional washing methods this method requires no chemicals at all. Water consumption and the degree of manual processing are also lower than with conventional washing techniques.

Which other eco-friendly washing treatments are used for Closed jeans?

For very bright washing effects we are dependent on the use of oxidising agents. We always look for the most eco-friendly option – one good example is the low-impact oxidants our laundries use to replace conventional chemicals. Unlike peroxides or hyperoxides, this highly enriched oxygen formula leaves no residues in the water, which reduces the effort required for water treatment after washing and saves energy. We also wash with ozone, a naturally occurring gas. The ozone process is by far the most environmentally friendly form of “bleaching”. It requires no additional chemicals and has strong oxidising properties while being completely residue-free. After use, it is heated very slightly so that it breaks back down into oxygen and is released back into the air without any pollution. The consumption of water and energy is also significantly lower than with conventional processes.

„We also wash with ozone, a naturally occurring gas.“

Denim Lexicon

A little bit of denim knowledge to impress others with. This time: Indigo

Indigo is a deep blue, crystalline, organic chemical compound. It’s used for dyeing cotton to make blue denim. Indigofera tinctoria was first planted and its leaves used to produce the colour indigo in India. Due to its laborious production indigo was nicknamed “blue gold” and “the colour of kings” (“royal blue”). In 1897, German company BASF introduced a synthetic indigo dye, which soon superseded natural indigo in the global marketplace.

PCR Cotton

Text by Laura Reinke

For our eco-denim line, A BETTER BLUE, we’re always looking for innovative sustainable materials and techniques – to save even more water, electricity, chemicals and emissions when creating our jeans (all of them are 100% Italian-made, by the way). As it’s much more efficient to use existing resources to create something new, we have been using recycled materials for our denim for a while now – and we’re excited to be introducing jeans with PCR cotton (post-consumer recycling cotton) content very soon! PCR cotton is made of cotton garments that have reached the end of their lifespan. By using old clothes to make new ones, precious resources are saved – allowing us to move towards a circular economy. For these reasons, our Italian denim mill Candiani has started a PCR program with several local partners, aimed at reviving discarded clothes to give them a second life. We asked our denim developer and sustainability expert Uwe Kippschnieder a few questions about this eco-friendly novelty.

Interview with denim expert Uwe Kippschnieder

Uwe Kippschnieder is Closed’s Denim Developer. He knows everything about denim – that’s why we call him our “walking denim lexicon” or simply refer to him as Dr. Denim. Uwe joined our company in 2002 and his passion for denim has been growing ever since. He is fascinated by sustainable denim innovations and is always pushing them vigorously for Closed. Inspired by his regular visits to weaving mills and laundries in Italy, he developed our eco-friendly denim line A BETTER BLUE with the clear message: style and eco-awareness can go hand in hand.

What makes PCR cotton so special?

There are several types of recycled cotton. Until now, we have been using post-industrial recycling cotton (PIR cotton) for our A BETTER BLUE jeans; this is partially made of cotton scraps from clothing production that would otherwise be disposed of. Of course, upcycling these remnants is great, but PCR cotton (post-consumer cotton) is the next level! PCR cotton consists of worn, sorted-out cotton garments, and it enables old clothes to become new ones. We can decrease garment waste and fewer resources are necessary to produce new materials.

How are old clothes turned into new denim?

Candiani partnered up with Humana Italia, an independent humanitarian organisation that collects clothes which are no longer worn and gives them a second life, generating environmental and social benefits. Humana is in charge of collecting and preparing the clothing for Candiani’s PCR program. In this process, the clothing is cleaned thoroughly, and all buttons, zips and labels are removed as they can’t be turned into new fabric. The Italian company Filatura Astro, an expert for regenerated yarns, is also part of the program. They shred the pre-processed garments from Humana and spin the remnants into yarns. Candiani then uses these yarns, together with “fresh” cotton, to weave new denim – which we will start using for some of our A BETTER BLUE jeans in 2022. They will be called New Chance Denims!

Does this type of denim look or feel different than conventional denim?

No, not at all, it has the same premium quality and several weights, washes and finishes are available. Candiani has worked on refined blends with up to 26% PCR cotton, around 60% organic cotton and around 15% Blue Seed cotton (Candiani’s own development). This makes the denim strong, durable and gives it a great hand feel.

Which other recycled materials are used for A BETTER BLUE?

We also work with an innovative stretch yarn which consists of recycled elastane. The Japanese company AsahiKASEI produces the world’s first elastane yarn entirely made of recycled material. It’s called ROICA Eco-Smart® and was developed exclusively for Candiani. The yarn has been awarded the Global Recycled Standard seal. It offers maximum elasticity with excellent recovery properties.

We can decrease garment waste and fewer resources are necessary to produce new materials.“

Denim Lexicon

A little bit of denim knowledge to impress others with. This time: ring yarn

The majority of denims used by Closed are ‘ring ring’ denims, where the warp threads have minor slubs. ‘Ring yarn’ is made from roving spun around a ring at a speed of 19,000 revolutions per minute and later wound up on a spindle. This method produces very fine yarns with variable yarn thickness, or so-called ‘slubs’ in the warp yarn. When the weft threads also consist of ring yarn, the denim is called ‘ring ring’ denim. Prominent variations in the thickness of the yarns result in a so-called ‘cross hatch’ look that gives the fabric a slightly checked appearance.